Early career doctors job satisfaction: A commentary
Makinde AM1, Babalola RN2, Kpuduwei SPK3, Ogunsuji OO4, Alatishe TA5, Sokomba A6, Adebayo O1*
1Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
2Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.
3Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
4Department of Periodontology and Community Dentistry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
5Department of Mental Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria.
6Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
*Correspondence: Dr. Oladimeji Adebayo; +234 803 374 4279; email@example.com
Download full article in pdf format
This commentary examines job satisfaction among early-career doctors (ECDs) in Nigeria. This group of professionals constitutes a significant portion of the physician workforce, and their satisfaction or otherwise can have indirect effects on patient care. Various theories and models relating to job satisfaction – such as those proposed by Locke and Herzberg; including the job-demand-control model, effort-reward-imbalance and job-demand-resource models- were discussed. Also, the various tools used to assess job satisfaction in the literature were evaluated. Moreover, a review of studies on job satisfaction among doctors in different regions of the world was done, suggesting that more doctors in Europe and Australia appeared to have a somewhat better satisfaction on their job than their counterparts in Africa. Intrinsic (like personal passion and motivation) and extrinsic factors (remuneration, working conditions) were identified. This was further dissected, and certain factors, including socio-demographics, issues bordering on autonomy, remuneration, working environment and training/skill acquisition were shown to influence job satisfaction. Lastly, this commentary establishes the benefits of overall improved job satisfaction on the doctor (improved mental and physical wellbeing), the patients (fewer errors in judgement, more efficient patient care), the overall health sector (reduction in brain-drain, expansion of health care delivery points), as well as the future of healthcare in our country, with the potential generation of efficient future healthcare leaders.
Keywords: Physician, Junior doctors, Early career doctor, Nigeria, Satisfaction, Workplace, Health workforce.
Yen Med J. 2020;2(3):9–14.
Cite this article: Makinde AM, Babalola RN, Kpuduwei SPK, Ogunsuji OO, Alatishe TA, Sokomba A, et al. Early career doctors job satisfaction: A commentary. Yen Med J. 2020;2(3):9–14.
- Appelbaum NP, Lee N, Amendola M, Dodson K, Kaplan B. Surgical resident burnout and job satisfaction: the role of workplace climate and perceived support. J Surg Res. 2019;234:20-25.
- Onuwabuchi E, Omololu A, Grillo E, Ekundayo O, Adeniyi M, Ogunsuji O, et al. The Demographic profile of Nigerian early career doctors. Yen Med J. 2019;2:1-4.
- Markwell AL, Wainer Z. The health and wellbeing of junior doctors: insights from a national survey. Med J Australia. 2009;191:441-444.
- Adebayo O, Fagbule OF, Omololu A, Ibrahim YA, Isibor E, Olaopa O, et al. We are Early Career Doctors We are NARD. Abuja, Nigeria: NARD Network Services; 2019.
- Konrad TR, Williams ES, Linzer M, McMurray J, Pathman DE, Gerrity M, et al. Measuring physician job satisfaction in a changing workplace and a challenging environment. Med. Care. 1999:1174-1182.
- Solberg IB. Doctors’ job satisfaction during early career and economic recession. Prospective and cross-national studies in Norway and Iceland. Oslo, Norway: Reprosentralen, University of Oslo; 2017.
- Ogunsuji O, Adebayo O, Olaopa O, Efuntoye O, Agbogidi J, Kanmodi K, et al. Burnout among Nigerian Doctors: A Systematic Review. Niger Med Pract. 2019;76:25-30.
- Dyrbye LN, West CP, Satele D, Boone S, Tan L, Sloan J, et al. Burnout among US medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general US population. Acad Med. 2014;89:443-451.
- Starmer AJ, Frintner MP, Freed GL. Work–life balance, burnout, and satisfaction of early career pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2016;137:e20153183.
- Locke EA. What is job satisfaction? Organ Behav Hum Perform. 1969;4(4):309-336.
- Olatunji YD. Book review: NARD’s we are early career doctors, we are NARD. Yen Med J. 2020; 2(1):171-172.
- Spector PE. Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications, Inc; 1997.
- Isaacs A, Raymond A, Jacob A, Hawkings P. Job satisfaction of medical interns: a qualitative study using Herzberg’s hygiene motivation theory. 2020 (Unpublished). DOI:10.21203/rs.2.24202/v1
- Batura N, Skordis-Worrall J, Thapa R, Basnyat R, Morrison J. Is the Job Satisfaction Survey a good tool to measure job satisfaction amongst health workers in Nepal? Results of a validation analysis. BMC Health Serv. Res. 2016;16:308.
- Hills D, Joyce C, Humphreys JJE. Validation of a job satisfaction scale in the Australian clinical medical workforce. Eval Health Prof. 2012;35:47-76.
- Bowling NA, Hammond GD. A meta-analytic examination of the construct validity of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale. J. Vocat. Behav. 2008;73(1):63-77.
- Adebayo O, Labiran A, Emerenini CF, Omoruyi L. Health Workforce for 2016–2030: Will Nigeria have enough. Int. J. Innovative Healthcare Res. 2016;4(1):9-16.
- Akinyemi O, Atilola O. Nigerian resident doctors on strike: insights from and policy implications of job satisfaction among resident doctors in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2013;28(1):e46-61.
- Abdel-Salam DM, Abdallah MA, Sayed WS, Ismail NA. Job Satisfaction among Resident Doctors at Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt. Natl J Res Comm Med. 2015;4(2):167-180.
- Dyrbye LN, Varkey P, Boone SL, Satele DV, Sloan JA, Shanafelt TD. Physician satisfaction and burnout at different career stages. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(12):1358-1367.
- Adebayo O, Adufe I, Omololu A, Dabota YB, Egwu O, Efosa I, et al. White Coat Drain; A monograph on the migration of Nigerian Doctors. Abuja, Nigeria: NARD Network Services; 2019.
- Yakasai I, Ugwa E, Abubakar IJTJoO, Gynaecology. Job satisfaction among resident doctors in a tertiary healthcare facility in Northern Nigeria, a cross sectional. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;30(1):89-96.
- Roditis K, Samara E, Louis K. A survey to assess job satisfaction among junior doctors in Greece. Scientific Chronicles. 2019;24(1):72-96.
- Idokoko AB. A survey of the job satisfaction of physicians across specialties and the relative effects of income and working conditions. Academia. https://www.academia.edu/10161806/As_Assessment_of_the_Job_Satisfaction_of_Medical_Doctors_in_Nigeria. Accessed May 6, 2020.
- Oraegbunam C, Tcholakov Y, Mukuka S, Kalmus M, Chloe A, Maki L, et al. Junior Doctors Network empowering young physicians to work together towards a healthier world through advocacy, education, and international collaboration. Junior Doctors Network Newsletter. 2019;16. https://www.wma.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/JDN_16NL_Oct2019.pdf. Accessed June 20, 2020.
- Jongbloed LJS, Schönrock-Adema J, Borleffs JC, Stewart RE, Cohen-Schotanus J. Physicians’ job satisfaction in their begin, mid and end career stage. J. Hosp. Adm. 2017;6(1).
- Kanmodi K, Ekundayo O, Adebayo O, Efuntoye O, Ogunsuji O, Ibiyo M, et al. Challenges of residency training and early career doctors in Nigeria study(CHARTING STUDY): a protocol paper. Niger J Med. 2019;28(2):198-205.
- Ogunnubi OP, Ojo TM, Oyelohunnu MA, Olagunju AT, Tshuma N. Stress and training satisfaction among resident doctors in Nigeria: Any justification for a change in training policy? J. Clin. Sci. 2018;15(1):32-40.
- Weigl M, Hornung S, Petru R, Glaser J, Angerer P. Depressive symptoms in junior doctors: a follow-up study on work-related determinants. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2012;85(5):559-570.
- Adebayo O, Kanmodi K, Olaopa O, Fagbule OF, Adufe I, Adebayo AM, et al. Strategies for mitigating burnout among early career doctors in Nigeria: lessons learnt from the qualitative CHARTING study. Global Psychiatry. 2020;3(1).