Family caregiver - A hidden patient: Critical appraisal
Benson Fakuma Nana1*, Ndukwu Geraldine U2
1Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
2Department of Family Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
*Correspondence: Benson Fakuma Nana; +234 703 441 4272, +234 814 215 3503, email@example.com
Download full article in pdf format
Family caregivers are essential in the care of sick members of the family especially those with chronic medical conditions that require long–term care services. This article examines the various roles of the caregiver to sick relative and the impact of assuming these roles on caregivers’ health and well-being. It describes the complex role of care giving and how it can affect both the health of the caregiver and the quality of care to the care recipient. Physicians and other members of the health team should see caregivers as hidden patients who should have access to high-quality, evidence-based interventions designed to mitigate or prevent the negative impact of caregiving on their health.
Keywords: Caregiver, Care recipient, Informal Caregiver, Caregiver Burden.
Cite this article: Benson FN, Ndukwu GU. Family caregiver – A hidden patient: Critical appraisal. Yen Med J. 2019;1(1):15–27.
- Mohammed SM, Ghaith RAH. Relationship between burden, psychological well-being and social support among caregivers of mentally ill- Egy Nurs J. 2018;15(3):268–280.
- Akbari M, Alari M, Irajpour A, Maghsoudi J. Challenges of family caregivers of patients with mental disorders in Iran: A narrative review; Iranian J Nurs Midwifery 2018;23(3)329–337.
- Anderson P. Caring for the ‘hidden patient’ after stroke. Available from: www.medscape.com/viewarticle/828687. Accessed June 8, 2019.
- Caqueo-Urizar A, Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Miranda-Gustillo C, Quality of life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: A literature review 2009. Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed June 8, 2019.
- Reinhard SC, Given B, Petlick NH, Bemis A. Supporting family caregivers in providing In: Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville, USA: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008:14.
- World Health Dementia; a public health priority. Geveva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation; 2012.
- Akosile CO, Okoye EC, Adegoke BA, Mbada CE, Maruf FA, Okeke IA. Burden, Health and Quality of life of Nigerian stroke caregivers. Healthcare Curr Rev. 2013;1(1):1000105 doi: 4172/2373.1000105.
- Zigante V. Informal care in Europe. Exploring formalisation, availability and quality. Luxembourg: European Commission; 2018. Available from: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/96d27995-6dee-11e8-9483-01aa75ed71a1/language-en. Published June 11, 2018. Accessed June 8, 2019.
- Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Care giving for family and friends – A Public Health Centres for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available from: www.cdc.gov/aging/caregiving/caregiver-brief.html. Accessed June 8, 2019.
- Schulz R, Eden J. Families Caring for an Ageing America. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2016.
- Care giving roles and responsibilities. Science care website. Available from: www.sciencecare.com/caregiving-roles-and-responsibilities. Accessed June 8, 2019.
- Greenlee J, Scharclach A. Caregivers characteristics and needs. Available from: https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.547.783&rep=rep1&type=pdf Accessed June 8, 2019.
- Casado RD, Frias–Osuna A, J-Ramos-Morcillo A. Social support and subjective burden in caregivers of adults and older adults: A meta-analysis. PLOS One. 2018;13(1):e19189874.
- Inagaki TK, Orehek E. On the beneﬁts of Giving Social Support: When, Why and How Support Providers Gains by caring for Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2017;26(2):109–113.
- Brown S, Nesse R, Vinokur A, Dylan Smith. Providing social support may be more beneﬁcial than receiving it; results from a prospective study of mortality. Psychological science website. Available from: psychologicalscience.org/pdf/14-4Brown.cfm. Accessed June 8, 2019.
- Miller B, Townsend A, Carpenter E, Montegomery R. Social Support and Caregiver Distress: A Replication J Greontol. 2001;56(4): 249–256.
- The National Academics of Sciences Engineering Medicine. Healthcare Comes Home. The Human 2011:75–99.
- Garvelunsi MM, Ngangue PA, Adekpedjou R, Diouf NT, Goh L, Blair L, et al. Synthesis of Knowledge about Caregivers Decisions Making, Finding Gaps in support for those who care for aging loved Health Affairs. 2016;35(4):619–626.
- Whitlatch Informal Caregiver. Communication and Decision Making, Am J Nurs. 2008;103(9 suppl.):73–77.
- Bevans MF, Sternberg E. Care giving Burden, Stress, and Health Effects Among Family Caregivers of Adult Cancer JAMA. 2012;307(4):398–403.
- Collins LG, Swartz K. Caregiver Care. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83(2):1309–1317.
- Buhse M, Assessment of Caregiver Burden in Families of Persons with Multiple J Neurosci Nurs. 2008;40(1):20–31.
- Stucki BR, Mulvey Can aging baby boomers avoid the nursing home? Long-term care insurance for aging in place. American Council of Life Insurers. 2000;15.
- Wexlersherman C, Kowaslkowski JD. Assessment of Dementia in Family In: Lichtenberg, ed. Handbook of Assessment in Clinical Gerontology. 2nd ed. Cambridge, USA: Academy Press; 2010.
- Hildebrand MW. Care giving after In: Gillen G, ed. Stroke Rehabilitation. 4th ed. Maryland Heights,USA: Mosby; 2015.
- Bastawrous M. Caregiver burden – a critical Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50(3):431–441.
- Fekete C, Tough H, Siegrist Health Impact of objective burden, subjective burden and Positive aspects of care giving an observational study among caregivers in Switzerland. BMJ Open. 2017;7:e017369. doi: 10;1136/bmjopen-2017-017369.
- Jon PH, Robin Non-motor Parkinson’s – the Hidden Face. Int Rev Neurol. 2017;133:479-497.
- Hopps M, Iadeluca L, McDonald M, Markson G. The Burden of Family Care giving in the United State, Work Productivity, Healthcare Resources Utilization, and Mental Health Among Employed Adults. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2017;10:437–444.
- Schulz R, Sherwood Physical and Mental Health Effects of Family Care giving. Am J Nurs. 2008;108(9 suppl.):23–27.
- Irfan B, Irfan O, Ansari A, Qidwai W, Nanyi K. Impact of Care giving on various aspects of the lives of Cureus. 2017;9(5):e1213.
- Schulz R, Beach Care giving as a risk factor for mortality: The care giver Health Effect Study. J Am Med Ass. 1999;15:2215–2219.
- American Psychological Association. Mental and Physical American Psychological Association website. Available from: www.apa.org/pi/about/publications/caregivers. Accessed June 11, 2019.
- Laurel LN, Maria CK, Ann MS, Denise W. The impact of care giving on the psychological well-being of family caregivers and cancer patients. Sem Oncol Nurs. 2012;28(4):236–245.
- Otis-Green S, Juarez G. Enhancing the Social well-being of Family Caregivers. Sem Oncol Nurs. 2012;28(4):246-255.
- Lai DW. Effects of Financial Costs on Care giving Burden of Family Caregivers of Older Sage Open. 2012:2(4):1–14. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2158244012470467. Accessed June 11, 2019.
- Nortey ST, Aryeetey GC, Aikins M. Amendah D, Nonvignon J.Economic burden of family caregiving for elderly population in southern Ghana: the case of a peri-urban district. Int J Equity Health. 2017;16(16):1-9.
- Marc S, Rachel AN, David S, Lorenzo R. Chronic Disease: An Economic London, UK: Oxford Health Alliance; 2006.
- Miedema B, Easley J, Fortin P, Hamilton R, Matthews M. The Economic Impact on Families when a child is diagnosed with Curr Oncol. 2008;15:11–17.
- Jihyeon L, Chiyoung C. Unmet Needs and Caregiver Burden Among Family Caregivers of Hospice Patients in South J Hospice Palliative Nurs. 2017;19(4):323–331.
- Kim H, Chang M, Rose K, Kim S. Predictors of caregiver burden in caregivers of individuals with dementia. J Adv Nurs. 2012;68(4):846-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05787.x.
- Feinberg L, Houser A. Assessing Family Caregiver Needs, Policy and Practice AARP Public Policy Institute Factsheet. 2012;258.
- Barrett P, Hale B, Butler M. Informal care in An Expression of Social Relationships, Family care and Social Capital. Trans Informal C. 2014:17–34.
- Khayatzadeh-Mahani A, Leslie M, Policies supporting informal caregivers across Canada; a Scoping Review Protocol. BMJ 8(6):446–455.
- Rajnovich B, Keefe J, Fast J. Supporting caregivers of dependent adults in the 21st Century. Available from: https://cwhn.ca/en/node/28032 Accessed June 12, 2019.
- Casanova G, Lamura G, Principi A, Valuing and integrating informal care as a core component of long-term care for the older people. A comparison of recent development in Italy and J Aging Soc Policy. 2017;29(1):1–17.
- Digital medicine. Blueprint for a digital transformation of health and care in an aging Digital medicine website. Available from: www.digitmedicine.com/article.asp?issn=2226-8561. Accessed June 12, 2019.
- Stoltz P, Anderson EP, William A. Support in nursing – An Evolutionary Concept Int J Nurs Stud. 2007;44(8): 1478–1489.
- World Health Towards long term care systems in sub-Saharan Africa; WHO Series on long–term care, 2017. World Health Organisation website. Available from: https://www.who.int/ageing/publications/WHO-LTC-series-subsaharan-africa.pdf?ua=1. Accessed June 12, 2019.
- Tanyi PL, Andre P, Mbah P, Tong K. Care of the elderly in Nigeria; implication for Cogent Social Serv. 2018;4(1):1. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080%2F23311886.2018.1555201. Accessed June 12, 2019.