Pattern of occurrence of severe preeclampsia among pregnant women in South-West Nigeria.

Orisabinone IB1, Onwudiegwu U2, Adeyemi AB2, Oriji PC1*, Makinde OI1
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.
*Correspondence: Dr. Oriji, Peter Chibuzor; +234 706 423 3209; chibuzor54@gmail.com

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Abstract

Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-associated multi-organ disorder caused by altered trophoblastic invasion and endothelial cell dysfunction. It is one of the major direct causes of maternal mortality and otherwise is associated with significant maternal morbidity and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. It complicates 5 – 10% of pregnancies worldwide and can be antepartum, intrapartum or post-partum.
Objectives: To determine the pattern of occurrence of severe pre-eclampsia at patient presentation in a south-West Nigeria hospital.
Materials and Methods: This study was carried out at the obstetrics and gynaecology department of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 116 consecutive patients that presented with severe pre-eclampsia to the labour ward of the hospital between March 2015 and September 2015. History was obtained from eligible patients and documented on a proforma. Data were analysed using statistical software (SPSS for windows® version 22, SPSS Inc.; Chicago, USA).
Results: Most (69.8%) of the patients that developed severe pre-eclampsia were less than 30 years old, majority were booked (51.7%), and were primigravida (46.6%). Severe pre-eclampsia occurred most (37.1%) from 37 to 38 weeks gestational ages and intrapartum (48.3%). Antepartum pre-eclampsia followed at 37%, while the least experienced was post-partum (14.7%). In addition to elevated blood pressure, majority (55.1%) of the patients presented with proteinuria of 4+ and headache alone (72.8%).
Conclusion: Intrapartum pre-eclampsia is a more common phenomenon among the patients and proteinuria of 4++++ and headache alone were the most common features of disease severity.

Keywords: Preeclampsia, Perinatal morbidity/mortality, Maternal morbidity/mortality, Intrapartum, Antepartum, Post-partum.

Cite this article: Orisabinone IB, Onwudiegwu U, Adeyemi AB, Oriji PC, Makinde OI. Pattern of occurrence of severe preeclampsia among pregnant women in South-West Nigeria. Yen Med J. 2020; 2(1):38-42.

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