Pattern of tubal pathology in infertile women undergoing hysterosalpingography at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Oriji PC1*, Kiridi EK2, Allagoa DO1, Omietimi JE1, Orisabinone IB1, Makinde OI1, Obagah L1, Aigere EOS1, Agbo J1, Oweisi PW1, Afolabi AS1, Kotingo EL1, Dambo ND1, Ikoro C1, Mbah KM1, Tekenah ES1
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
2Department of Radiology, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
*Correspondence: Dr. Oriji, Peter Chibuzor; +234 706 423 3209; chibuzor54@gmail.com

Download full article in pdf format

Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an important imaging procedure in gynaecological practice used for evaluation of women with infertility. Genital infections contribute significantly to infertility in our environment by causing tubal disease. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are among the leading causes of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to tubal damage and then tubal factor infertility.
Objective: To determine the types of tubal pathologies in infertile women undergoing HSG.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of consecutive 220 infertile women referred for HSG for evaluation of infertility that met the inclusion criteria for this study. Written informed consent was obtained. HSG was then carried out using standard procedures. Data collected with a predesigned proforma were analysed using statistical software (SPSS for windows® version 22, SPSS Inc.; Chicago, USA).
Results: Bilateral normal tubes characterised by free intraperitoneal spillage with normal size tubes were present in 136 patients (61.8%). Tubal blockage, either bilateral or unilateral was the most common tubal abnormality, and it was observed in 48 patients (21.9%). Left tubal blockage alone was observed in 15 patients (6.8%). Right tubal blockage alone was observed in 6 patients (2.7%).
Hydrosalpinx, either bilateral or unilateral was observed in 15 patients (6.8%). Bilateral hydrosalpinx was observed in 10 patients (4.5%). Left hydrosalpinx alone was observed in 1 patient (0.5%). Right hydrosalpinx alone was observed in 4 patients (1.8%). There was no patient with a combination of tubal blockage and hydrosalpinx.
Conclusion: Tubal occlusion and hydrosalpinx were the only tubal abnormalities observed in this study. Tubal blockage was more than hydrosalpinx, and hydrosalpinx was more on the right.

Keywords: Hysterosalpingography, Infertility, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Tubal pathologies.

Cite this article: Oriji PC, Kiridi EK, Allagoa DO, Omietimi JE, Orisabinone IB, Makinde OI, et al. Pattern of tubal pathology in infertile women undergoing hysterosalpingography at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Yen Med J. 2020;2(1):12–17.

REFERENCES

  1. Oguntoyinbo AE, Adesina KT, Olarinoye AO, Aboyeji AP, Olanrewaju WI, Oniyangi M. Pre-HSG microbial isolates from endocervical swabs in infertile women in Ilorin, Nigeria. West Afr J Radiol. 2014;21(2):59–63. DOI: 10.4103/1115-1474.134604.
  2. Mascarenhas MN, Flaxman SR, Boerma T. National, regional, and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990: a systematic analysis of 277 health surveys. PLoS Med. 2012;9(12):e1001356. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001356.
  3. Anyanwu MO, Idoko P. Prevalence of Infertility at the Gambian Teaching Hospital. Women’s Health Gynaecol. 2017;3(2):1–4.
  4. Nezar M, Abdalla MD. Pattern of infertility among couples in Gezira area, Sudan. Med J Cairo Univ. 2011;79(1):529–532.
  5. Abubakar AP, Yusuf TS. The profile of infertility in a Teaching Hospital in North West Nigeria. Sahel Med J. 2014;17(1):7–11.
  6. Ugwuja EI, Ugwu NC, Ejikeme BN. Prevalence of Low Sperm Count and Abnormal Semen Parameters in Male Partners of Women Consulting at Infertility Clinic in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Afr Reprod Health. 2008;12(1):67–73.
  7. Novy MJ, Eschenbach DA, Witkin SS. Infections as a cause of infertility. Global Library of Women’s Medicine. Available from: https://www.glowm.com/section_view/heading/infections-as-a-cause-of-infertility/item/327. Published 2008. Accessed November 11, 2019.
  8. Otolorin EO, Ojengbede O, Falase AO. Laparoscopic evaluation of the tubo- peritoneal factor in infertile Nigerian women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1987;25(1):47–52.
  9. Okonofua FE, Esen UI, Nimalaraj T. Hysterosalpingography versus laparoscopy in tubal infertility. Comparison based on findings at laparotomy. Int Gynaecol Obstet. 1989;28:143–147.
  10. Otubu JA, Sagay AS, Dauda S. Hysterosalpingogram, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in the assessment of the infertile Nigerian female. E Afr Med J. 1990;67(5):370–372.
  11. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice and Practice Committee. Female age-related fertility decline. Committee Opinion No. 589. Fertil Steril. 2014;101(3):633–634.
  12. Raymont A, Arronet GH, Arrata WS. Review of 500 cases of infertility. Int J Fertil. 1969;14(2):141–153.
  13. Mati JK, Senai SKA, Oyieke JB, Sekadde CBK, Njoroge JK, Muta MN. Clinical aspects of infertility in Kenya. A comprehensive evaluation of the couples. J Obstet Gynaecol East Central Afr. 1989;(6):61–63.
  14. Lee SI, Kilcoyne A. Hysterosalpingography. UpToDate. Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/hysterosalpingography?source=history_widget. Accessed November 11, 2019.
  15. Horwitz RC, Morton PC, Shaff MI, Hugo P. A radiological approach to infertility- hysterosalpingography. Br J Radiol. 1979;52(616):255–262.
  16. Rezvani M, Shaaban AM. Fallopian tube disease in the nonpregnant patient. Radiographics. 2011;31(2):527–548.
  17. Bello TO. Pattern of tubal pathology in infertile women on hysterosalpingography in Ilorin, Nigeria. Ann Afri Med. 2004;3(2):77–79.
  18. Adetiloye VH. Radiological patterns of diseases on hysterosalpingography dissertation. Lagos, Nigeria: National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria; 1988:64–100.
Scroll to Top
× Chat