Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome: Review of Embryogenesis of Pituitary Gland and Imaging Correlation.

Johnbull T1*, Oyinbo CA1, Ligha AE1,2
1Department of Human Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
2Texila American University/FEU-NRMF, Quezon City, Philippines.

*Correspondence:Johnbull, Tamuno-Olobo; Orcid ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6127-0301; johnbulltammy@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is a rare congenital disorder associated with clinical presentation of small stature and pituitary hypogonadism. The anterior and the posterior pituitary glands are composed of tissues that differ from each other embryologically and histologically. Normal development results in the fusion of the anterior lobe growing cranially from the ectoderm of the stomadaeum (Rathke’s pouch) and the posterior pituitary growing caudally from the neuroectoderm of the diencephalon. Ectopic neurohypophysis is commonly associated with structural midline defects. Abnormal posterior pituitary migration such as the ectopic posterior pituitary lobe appearing at the level of median eminence or along the pituitary stalk, absent, small infundibular stalk and or hypoplastic adenohypophysis are the imaging findings. A wide range of gene mutations such as HESX1, LHX4, SOX3 and OTX2 are involved in more complex and heterogeneous phenotypes such as pituitary anomalies, craniofacial and limb malformations in addition to pituitary hormone deficiencies.

Keywords: Pituitary, interruption, hormonal deficiencies, imaging.

Cite this article:  Johnbull T, Oyinbo CA. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: review of embryogenesis of pituitary gland and imaging correlation. Yen Med J. 2022;4(1):23–28.

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