Prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors in patients attending accident and emergency department of a tertiary health institution in South-West Nigeria.

Omosanya OE1*, Ayodapo AO2, Ibrahim AO1, Ogundana AO1
1Department of Family Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
2Bowen University Hospital, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.
*Correspondence: Omosanya OE; +234 803 725 6277;

Download full article in pdf format


Background: HIV infection, a major health problem worldwide, has been reported to be prevalent in patients in Accident and Emergency department, thus presents an occupational hazard to health care workers (HCW) who care for these patients.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors among patients attending Accident and Emergency department of Federal Teaching Hospital (FETHI), Ido-Ekiti.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a pre-tested, coded questionnaire and blood samples. A total of 100 patients were recruited and studied. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 1 and 2 screening was conducted on consecutive consented conscious patients using the STAT PAK™ (Chembio Diagnostic Systems Inc, USA) and Determine™ (Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA) kits for HIV 1 and 2. Data collected were entered into and analysed with SPSS 20 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Results: Out of 100 patients recruited for the study, males accounted for 49% while females accounted for 51%. Those positive for HIV were 2 (2.0%) while 98 (98.0%) were confirmed negative. Both that were positive for HIV were females. The affected age-groups were 31-40 years and 51-60 years.
Conclusion: A risk of exposure to HIV exists in HCW who care for these patients in our institution. Thus, all emergency health care workers need to practice universal barrier precautions in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV infection.

Key words: Accident and Emergency, HCW, HIV prevalence, Patients, Risk factors.

Cite this article: Omosanya OE, Ayodapo AO, Ibrahim AO, Ogundana AO. Prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors in patients attending accident and emergency department of a tertiary health institution in South- West Nigeria. Yen Med J. 2020;2(1):79-84.


  1. Ranjech DB. Women and HIV in Sub-Sahara Africa. AIDS Res Treat. 2013;10:30-39.
  2. Ogbuogu CN, Emejulu JK, Ofiaeli RO, Ogbuagu EN, Onyenekwe ON, Oguoma VM. Undiagnosed HIV cases in accident and emergency unit of a tertiary health institution in South-East Nigeria. RIF. 2010;1(5):239-245.
  3. Aitalegbe OW. Incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS among patients attending a teaching hospital in south western Nigeria. J Pharm Allied Sci. 2013;10(3).
  4. Archibald CP, Alexander P, Gatali M. Geduld J. Undiagnosed HIV infections: The rate-limiting step for the 3 by 5 initiative? International Conference on AIDS. 2004;15 (WeOrB1282):11-16.
  5. Women more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection than men. AEGiS-AFP News. Available from:…/AF051227.html. Accessed November 28, 2019.
  6. HIV prevention among adolescent girls and young women. Available from: https://www. Accessed November 28, 2019.
  7. Ramachandran R, Chandrasekaran V, Muniyandi M, Jaggarajamma K, Bagchi A, Sahu S. Prevalence and Risk Factors of HIV Infection among Clients Attending ICTCs in Six Districts of Tamilnadu, South India. AIDS Res Treat. 2011;2011:650321. doi:10.1155/2011/650321
  8. Mayala V, Mshana S, Chalya PL, Dass RM, Kalluvya SE. Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania and its influence on outcome. Tanzania J Health Res. 2010;12(4):1-9
× Chat