Prognostic accuracy of β hcg level in predicting pregnancy outcomes among pre-eclamptic patients at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa.

Obagah L1, Jeremiah I1, Allagoa DO1, Aigere EOS1, Kasia BE2, Kotingo EL1, Oriji PC1*
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
2Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
*Correspondence: Dr. Oriji, Peter Chibuzor; +234 706 423 3209; chibuzor54@gmail.com

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Abstract

Background: Serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β hCG) is one of the placental peptides that have been associated with the severity of preeclampsia.
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of quantitative serum beta hCG as prognostic indicator of pregnancy outcome among preeclamptic patients at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa.
Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective case-control study where one hundred patients with preeclampsia (who satisfied the inclusion criteria) were recruited consecutively as they were admitted into the antenatal or labour ward. One hundred non-preeclamptic patients were also recruited as control. Foeto-maternal data were recorded into a protocol. Adverse perinatal outcomes such as IUGR, IUFD and Birth Asphyxia were also recorded into the protocol. Levels of maternal quantitative serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin as well as complications of the disease such as Eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and acute renal failure were also recorded into the protocol.
Data entry and statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social science (SPSS for windows version 22.0 SPSS Inc; Chicago, USA). Student t-test was used to determine association between quantitative variables. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results: The mean age in the study group was 28 ± 6.7 years while in the control group it was 31 ± 6.5 years. The difference in age was not statistically significant (p = 0.53). The mean serum quantitative serum β hCG were significantly higher amongst participants with preeclampsia than in those without preeclampsia (405.6 ± 995µmol/L vs 232.7 ± 26.3 µmol/L, p = 0.00) and (26776.6 ± 19590.5 miu/ml vs 7973.6 ± 4193.7 miu/ml, p < 0.00) respectively. β hCG was statistically associated with the occurrence of Eclampsia (p = 0.01), Severe Hypertension (p = 0.01), IUGR (P = 0.01) and Birth Asphyxia (P = 0.05). The prognostic accuracy of serum β hCG in predicting pregnancy outcomes were: HELLP syndrome (0.25, 0.33, 0.44) Eclampsia (0.13, 0.39, 0.50), Acute Renal Failure (0.33), IUGR (0.39), IUFD (0.27) and Birth Asphyxia (0.38).
Conclusion: The mean quantitative serum β hCG was higher amongst participants with preeclampsia than in those without preeclampsia. Serum β hCG level was found to be a useful prognostic indicator for foeto-maternal outcome in women with preeclampsia. While its use is relevant in our locality, further studies of other serum markers is recommended.

Keywords: Pre-eclampsia, B hCG, Prognostic marker, Pregnancy outcome, Yenagoa.

Cite this article: Obagah L, Jeremiah I, Allagoa DO, Aigere EOS, Kasia BE, Kotingo EL, et al. Prognostic accuracy of β hcg level in predicting pregnancy outcomes among pre-eclamptic patients at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa. Yen Med J. 2020;2(2):30–37.

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