Review of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) curriculum of West African countries against the standard CSE curriculum: any existing literature?

Olufadewa II1,3, 5 Adesina MA1-4* Oladele RI1,3
1Slum and Rural Health Initiative Research Academy, Lalupon, Oyo State, Nigeria.
2Cephas Health Research Initiative Inc, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
3College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
4Universal Care for Africa Foundation, St Louis, USA.
5Pan African University of Life and Earth Sciences Institute, PAULESI, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
*Correspondence: Miracle A. Adesina; +234 703 036 9940;

Download full article in pdf format


Background: Young people (10-24 years), represent about 30% of the world’s population and 40% of West Africa’s population. Several studies have shown that they are in dire need of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) because they are vulnerable to risky and unhealthy behaviours such as unprotected sexual intercourse, sexual violence, unsafe abortion, multiple sexual partners among others. CSE is very effective in reducing these risky sexual behaviours and international agencies such as UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund), WHO, UNAIDS and many more emphasize the need for CSE in the early stage of life, in formal settings such as in primary and secondary schools and informal settings such as religious centres.

The need for all countries in West Africa to have a national CSE curriculum that conforms to the standard CSE cannot be overemphasized as a recent study has shown that countries with CSE curriculum with moderate to serious gaps have higher prevalence of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) among youths. An online search of English literatures on review of the national CSE curriculum of West African countries in tandem with the standard CSE curriculum was carried out on AERD (African Education Research Database), PubMed, UNFPA, UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund) and UNWOMEN; however, no literature was found.

Conclusion: This shows that this is a highly neglected area; there is therefore an urgent need to conduct research on this area as this will help in properly and appropriately addressing the sexual and reproductive health issues of young people in West Africa.

Keywords: Review, Comprehensive sexuality education, Curriculum, Standard CSE, West Africa.
Yen Med J. 2020;2(4):90 – 94.

Cite this article: Olufadewa II, Adesina MA, Oladele RI. Review of Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) Curriculum of West African Countries against the Standard CSE Curriculum: Any Existing Literature? Yen Med J. 2020;2(4):90 – 94.


  1. United Nations Population Fund. The Power of 1.8 Billion Adolescents, Youth and the Transformation of the Future. Available from: Accessed August 30, 2020.
  2. Theatre for sex education in Burkina Faso. Int Rev Educ. 1993;39(1-2):143-144.
  3. Popoola BI. Sex Stereotypes and School Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviour in Osun State, Nigeria. Sex Educ. 2011;11(2):117–127.
  4. Maqbool M, Khan M, Mohammad M, Adesina MA, Fekadu G. Awareness about reproductive health in adolescents and youth: A review. J Appl Pharm Sci Res. 2019;2(3):1-5.
  5. Kyilleh JM, Tabong PT, Konlaan BB. Adolescent’s reproductive health knowledge, choices and factors affecting reproductive health choices: a qualitative study in the West Gonja District in Northern region, Ghana. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2018;18(1):6.
  6. Yakubu I, Salisu WJ. Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reprod Health. 2018;15(1):15.
  7. Nash K, O’Malley G, Geoffroy E, Schell E, Bvumbwe A, Denno DM. “Our girls need to see a path to the future” –perspectives on sexual and reproductive health information among adolescent girls, guardians, and initiation counselors in Mulanje district, Malawi. Reprod Health. 2019;16(1):8.
  8. Fonner VA, Armstrong KS, Kennedy CE, O’Reilly KR, Sweat MD. School based sex education and HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e89692.
  9. Maticka-tyndale E, Wildish J, Gichuru, M. Thirty-month quasi-experimental evaluation follow-up of a national primary school HIV intervention in Kenya. Sex Educ. 2010;10(2):113-130.
  10. Achora S, Thupayagale-Tshweneagae G, Akpor OA, Mashalla YJS. Perceptions of adolescents and teachers on school-based sexuality education in rural primary schools in Uganda. Sex Reprod Health. 2018;17:12-18.
  11. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS). Sexuality education Q & A. Available from: Accessed July 28, 2020.
  12. UNESCO, UNFPA. International technical guidance on sexuality education, Available from: Accessed July 28, 2020.
  13. Adesina MA, Olufadewa II. Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) Curriculum in 10 East and Southern African Countries and HIV Prevalence among the Youth. Eur J Environ Pub Health. 2020, 4(1), em0035.
  14. Fawole IO, Asuzu MC, Oduntan SO, Brieger WR. A school-based AIDSeducation programme for secondary school students in Nigeria: a review of effectiveness. Health Educ Res. 1999;14(5):675-683.
  15. Leonard L, Ndiaye I, Kapadia A, Eisen G, Diop O, Mboup S, et al. HIV prevention among male clients of female sex workers in Kaolack, Senegal: results of a peer education program. AIDS Educ Prev. 2000;12(1):21-37.
  16. Oshi DC, Nakalema S, Oshi LL. Cultural and Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Sex Education in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. J Biosoc Sci. 2005;37(2):175–183.
  17. Ajuwon AJ, Brieger WR. Evaluation of a school-based reproductive health education program in rural South Western, Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007;11(2):47-59.
  18. Daboer JC, Ogbonna C, Jamda MA. Impact of health education on sexual risk behaviour of secondary school students in Jos, Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2008;17(3):324-329.
  19. Fiscian VS, Obeng EK, Goldstein K, Shea JA, Turner BJ. Adapting a multifaceted U.S. HIV prevention education program for girls in Ghana. AIDS Educ Prev. 2009;21(1):67-79.
  20. Bamidele JO, Abodunrin OL, Adebimpe WO. Sexual Behavior and Risk of HIV/AIDS Among Adolescents in Public Secondary Schools in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2009;21(3):387–394.
  21. Esere MO. Effect of Sex Education Programme on At-Risk Sexual Behaviour of School-Going Adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci. 2008:8(2):120–125.
  22. Ola OO, Oyerinde OO, Amosu AM, Degun AM, Thomas AM. Methodological Approaches to Sexuality Education in Secondary Schools in Ilisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Arch Appl Sci Res. 2011;3(2):83–88.
  23. Asamoah-Adu A, Weir S, Pappoe M, Kanlisi N, Neequaye A, Lamptey P. Evaluation of a targeted AIDS prevention intervention to increase condom use among prostitutes in Ghana. 1994;8(2):239-246.
  24. Traore IT, Meda N, Hema NM, Ouedraogo D, Some F, Some R, et al. HIV prevention and care services for female sex workers: efficacy of a targeted community-based intervention in Burkina Faso. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015;18:20088.
  25. Come YAC, Meda N, Anicet Ouédraogo G, Gaston Belem AM, Sombié I, Berthé A, et al. [Knowledge and attitude of young people regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso]. Sante Publique. 2016;28(4):525-534.
  26. Adeokun L A,Ricketts OL, Ajuwon AJ, Ladipo OA. Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge, Behaviour and Education Needs of In-School Adolescents in Northern Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2009;13(4):37–49.
  27. Adegbenro C, Adeniyi, JD, Oladepo O. Effect of Training Programme on Secondary Schools Teachers’ Knowledge and Attitude towards Reproductive Health Education in Rural Schools Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2006;10(3):98–105.
  28. Briggs IL. Comparative Analysis of Parents’ and Teachers’ View Points on Contraceptive Practice Among Adolescents in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 2002;21(2):95–98.
  29. Mba CI, Obi SN, Ozumba BC. The Impact of Health Education on Reproductive Health Knowledge among Adolescents in a Rural Nigerian Community. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27(5):513–517.
  30. Adjahoto EO, Hodonou KA, de Souza AD, Tété VK, Baeta S. [Teenage knowledge about sex]. 2000;10(3):195-199.
  31. Olufadewa II, Adesina MA, Ayorinde T. From Africa to the world: Reimagining Africa’s research capacity and culture in the global knowledge economy. J Glob Health 2020;10(1):010321.
Scroll to Top
× Chat